When is a mosquito bite more than just an itchy annoyance for your dog, cat, or ferret? When that mosquito is carrying a parasite called heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis). Found in all 50 states but most prevalent in the South and Midwest, heartworms are transmitted from one pet to the next by a mosquito.
Heartworms start as tiny microfilaria that can only be seen under a microscope. Over the next 6 months they lodge in the vessels of the heart and lungs and grow to be over a foot long. Adult heartworms can live in your pet for up to 7 years, and create thousands of baby heartworms that will be transmitted to other pets through new mosquitoes.
Heartworm disease is the syndrome caused by these worms living inside your pet. At the beginning, your dog will not show any signs of illness. Early signs of illness can include decreased activity, decreased appetite, weight loss, and/or mild cough. Over time, the heartworms can cause heart failure, kidney failure, or sudden death. Cats and ferrets can get severe disease from just a couple worms, and unfortunately there is no treatment for heartworm in these pets.
Dogs can be treated for heartworms with a medication called immiticide. This kills the adult heartworms and then your dog's immune system will gradually break down the worms. Treating heartworm is a very time-consuming and expensive process. It must be done gradually, because the dead worms can cause potentially fatal clots. Your dog is absolutely NOT allowed to run during the months of treatment because exercise can dislodge a worm and cause sudden death. In order to decrease this risk, we start with a month of an antibiotic to weaken the worms prior to the immiticide and steroids to decrease the inflammation in the lungs following the American Heartworm Society Guidelines.
So, that's all the bad news. What's the good news?
The good news is that heartworm disease is completely preventable. There are many preventive medications available that stop the baby heartworms from developing into adult disease-causing worms. Adding in mosquito repellent provides another layer of protection.
It's hard to concentrate in the midst of a global pandemic, but spring is bringing back all the usual pests and our pets need protection. So to keep your pets safe from disease-carrying fleas and ticks, here's what you need to know - we've put it into the mnemonic that's top of mind these days.
So by following the tips above you can keep your pets free of fleas and ticks this year - and give yourself one less thing to stress over. Questions about your particular pet? Just give us a call at 513-791-7912 and we'll be happy to discuss the best product for your individual situation.
Old age can cause challenges whether you have 2 legs or 4. Here are some simple steps you can take to make your older pet's daily life more comfortable and maximize the enjoyable moments.
Maintain a healthy weight
Being over- or under-weight can both be a problem for the senior pet. Work with us to adjust your pets' feeding schedule so that we can optimize lean muscle mass, decrease the stress of obesity on joints, and make sure your pet has the reserves he or she needs to fight illness.
Show us your best dog or cat grin - are those teeth pearly white? Is that breath fresh? The answer should be yes to both!
You can't have a healthy body without a healthy mouth. Rotten teeth cause pain in our pets, even though they won't show it. Very few animals will stop eating due to oral pain. They will mostly just slow down, or perhaps change the amount of time they spend with toys.
First step: a comprehensive oral exam and treatment. Because our patients won't open wide and say 'aah', this must be done under sedation. Just like a fear-free human dentist uses medications to relax those of us who are dental-phobes, a light anesthesia relaxes your pet so they aren't stressed and don't experience any pain during the procedure. As an AAHA-accredited practice, you can be sure that we have your pet's safety top of mind at all times. Each patient is continuously monitored by a dedicated team member from the moment of induction through to recovery.
What will we find?
We like to find healthy teeth under a small amount of tartar, with healthy gums that are pink and sharp-edged. Dental xrays will show us healthy roots and bone. These procedures are the shortest and least invasive, and our pets wake refreshed with healthy mouths and fresh breath. An optional dental sealant provides up to 6 months of extra protection against periodontal disease.
What else can we find? Unfortunately, most of our dental procedures reveal disease of some kind.
After we've done our job, it's up to you. Daily home care will keep your pet's mouth healthy.
What are your New Year's resolutions for 2020? Are you still on track? According to the American Medical Association, roughly half of all Americans make resolutions, but less than a quarter are still committed by the end of January. But what about focusing on your pet? Small goals are easier to achieve than lofty ones, and having a buddy to care for can be more motivating than focusing on yourself.
Resolution #2: Feed to your pet's calorie needs
You'll need a measuring cup and 5 minutes to start this one. I hate to break it to you, but those labels on the back of the food bags usually overestimate the amount of food your pet needs. A basic rule of thumb is that a healthy weight spayed or neutered indoor cat or small dog needs roughly 20 calories per pound. Talk to us about your pet's specific needs, because our pets are individuals and the estimates are only starting points. Overweight sedentary pets may need significantly fewer calories while active pets will need more. Carefully monitor weight and body condition after changing the diet to ensure that your pet is fed properly. Check out the Pet Nutrional Alliance calculators or look at the tables by the World Small Animal Veterinary Association for dogs or cats to get the number of calories to start with. Your pet's food should have a calories per cup or can somewhere on the bag, usually near the ingredients. Then you can do the math. If you like giving treats, here's permission: 10% of the calories can come from treats. For example:
These resolutions aren't big by themselves, but they can add up to a better relationship with your pet and a healthier, longer life over time. Here's your chance to start the new decade with some small goals, and beat the odds of making them stick. Your pet will thank you.
Everyone raise a paw to happy holidays! Here are some easy ways to keep the furry and feathered family members safe.
#1 Keep the food out of reach
Nothing spoils a meal faster than the dog eating the roast, carving knife and all (yes, that's actually happened). Keep pets away from tempting holiday spreads to prevent everything from a minor bellyache to life-threatening pancreatitis.
Onions, grapes, raisins, macadamia nuts, the sweetener xylitol, and chocolate are all toxic to dogs and cats. If your pet gets a hold of food with any of these ingredients, call us and induce vomiting as quickly as possible.
#2 Decorate for pet success
Holiday decorations provide a variety of new smells and tastes for the curious dog, cat, or parrot. Block all access by your inquisitive friend for the safest holiday. Pitfalls include:
Christmas trees - can fall over if pets climb on them or run into them
Christmas tree lights - chewing on the cord can lead to electric shock
Christmas tree water - additives can be toxic if swallowed
Tinsel - cats can become obstructed if they swallow it
Candles - possible fire hazards, and burn risks if knocked over
Ornaments - fragile ornaments will break if knocked over and possibly cut paws and mouths
Decorative plants - lilies, amaryllis, mistletoe, and cedar are all toxic. For a complete list, look at the ASPCA Poison Control's toxic plants for dogs and cats.
#3 Be prepared for visitors and travel
Expecting guests, or a petsitter?
Make sure your pet is identified with a microchip and wearing their collars and tags when you're expecting visitors. That gives them the best chance of returning home if they accidentally get out during the commotion. Keep pets away from the exits while you are occupied collecting coats and belongings for your guests.
Boarding your pet?
Make sure they are up to date on their vaccinations, especially against kennel cough (bordetella) and the canine flu (H3N8 and H3N2 influenza). Also make sure they are protected against fleas and ticks so they don't bring home any unwanted guests.
Interstate and international travel require a health certificate from your veterinarian, usually within 10 days of travel. Check with your airline for any additional paperwork requirements. Be sure to pack sufficient supplies of food and medications, and bring your pet's medical records with you in case of emergency at your destination.
Fall is here, and that means certain wildlife may be trying to make their way into your home to find a cozy spot for the winter. But don't reach for that rat bait just yet - take these simple precautions to keep your pets safe from poisoning.
Rat and mouse bait:
Rodenticides are poisons that kill rodents. They are frequently used to control mice and rats in homes, businesses, and some public areas. Unfortunately, children and pets are susceptible to the same active ingredients, so they are at risk for accidental poisoning. There is no such thing as a "pet-safe" bait. They are designed to smell good to get the rodents to come eat them. I've seen dogs who moved rocks to dig up buried baits, who chewed through heavy plastic bait stations, who opened cabinets to get to refill packs. They are motivated by the smell and have no idea that the delicious treat is designed to kill.
So the bottom line is, if you value your pet's life, DO NOT BRING THESE INTO YOUR HOME. Choose integrated pest management instead. This starts by removing food sources that draw the rodents into your home, blocking the entrances, and using mechanical traps (placed far away from inquisitive paws and noses), glue traps, or live traps to remove the creatures already present. Click the link for more information.
On the other hand, ant and roach baits are rarely toxic to dogs and cats. They may vomit or have mild diarrhea, but ingestion is rarely an emergency. An obstruction can occur, however, if they swallow the plastic or metal casing. If your pet eats an ant or roach bait, call your veterinarian or poison control with the specific active ingredient to verify whether or not any treatment is needed.
Antifreeze is one of the most common pet poisonings in the United States, probably because it's commonly found in most homes. It frequently contains the toxin ethylene glycol, which can have a sweet taste that is attractive to dogs and cats. They will lick it off garage floors if it drips down from the car. The poison causes changes to behavior and quickly progresses to kidney failure.
Signs of antifreeze poisoning include:
How to keep your pets safe:
Ah-choo! Cats can sneeze for a variety of reasons ranging from no big deal to serious illness. Here's how to tell whether to stay home and relax or call the vet.
Sneezing is a normal response to nasal irritation. Occasional sneezes are nothing to worry about, especially if your cat is immediately back to normal after the sneeze.
Sneezing can produce clear spray or thick snot. In general, clear spray sneezes are often viral or allergic in origin, while thicker green or yellow snot can mean bacterial or fungal infection. The nasal discharge can be present on both sides (bilateral), or just from one nostril (unilateral). Unilateral nasal discharge usually means something is structurally wrong, like an abscessed tooth or a foreign object stuck in the nasal passage. It always warrants a trip to the vet.
Causes of sneezing:
When to see the vet:
If in doubt, call us! While sneezing can be a normal sporadic part of a cat's life, any chronic sneezing or ill cats should be evaluated and treated.
As a new pet owner (or an experienced owner of a new pet), you may ask yourself whether or not you should have your dog, cat, or rabbit spayed (for females) or neutered (for males).
Prevent unwanted behaviors:
What are the risks of spaying and neutering?
Did you know that summertime is flu season for dogs? Or that parvovirus is more common in warm weather? Summer is a great time to review your dog and cat's vaccines to make sure they're fully protected while they play.
Who needs what?
Vaccinations prevent infectious diseases. We carefully select vaccines that are safe, painless, and effective to provide your dog and cat with the best protection with the least risk of side effects. Vaccinations are divided into two categories by the American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) and the American Association of Feline Practitioners (AAFP): core and noncore. Core vaccinations are for every pet. Noncore vaccinations are selected based on what diseases are present in your area and your pet's individual risk factors and lifestyle.
How to decide which noncore vaccines your dog needs:
Social dogs should be protected against kennel cough and dog flu. That includes dogs who go to day care, dog parks, grooming, or boarding facilities. It also includes dogs who may come into contact with friends on neighborhood walks. We've had 2 outbreaks of flu here in Cincinnati, and several boarding facilities even had to close temporarily to stop the spread. Both flu and kennel cough are airborne. They are spread by sneezing and nasal discharge.
Here in Cincinnati, we strongly recommend that all dogs be protected against leptospirosis because our local raccoon and opossum populations are carriers of the bacteria. The bacteria are hardy in moist conditions, so all it takes to get infected is for a raccoon to pee in your yard and your dog to sniff/lick the area. Then the bacteria multiply and cause damage to the liver and kidneys. Even more scary is that leptospirosis is contagious to people, so you are at risk if you come into contact with your sick pet's urine.
Lyme disease vaccination is not usually needed for dogs who stay in Cincinnati as long as they are on year-round tick prevention. That may change in the future, however, as our tick population becomes more infected with the bacteria and the risk for the disease increases. Dogs who are not protected against ticks or who travel to the northeast or northern midwest should be vaccinated.
Which noncore vaccines does my cat need?
Cats who go outside where they may come into contact with other cats should be protected against FelV (Feline leukemia virus). That virus is spread through saliva, so sharing a water dish, mutual grooming, or fighting can lead to virus transmission. The virus can lead to a supressed immune system and even the development of certain cancers like lymphoma.
Cats who live with an FIV-infected cat can receive the FIV vaccine. This virus is transmitted from cat to cat by biting. Only cats who are microchipped should receive this vaccine, because it will cause the cat to test positive for the disease on the screening tests used in most veterinary offices. So if your cat ever gets lost, he or she might be mistakenly diagnosed with the disease and considered sick and contagious. FIV causes immunosuppression, making your cat more susceptible to infections.
Chlamydophila, Bordetella, and FIP vaccinations are rarely needed for cats in the Cincinnati area.